Casey, J.G., Kim, E.S., Tao, B.S., Mansur, A., Wallace, E.D. & Gupta, V.A. (2022, November 12). Glycerolipid defects in skeletal muscle contribute to rhabdomyolysis in Tango2 deficiency. Retrieved from bioRxiv 2022.11.12.516274.
Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical emergency characterized by severe muscle damage resulting in the release of intracellular muscle components leading to myoglobinuria and in severe cases, acute kidney failure. Rhabdomyolysis is caused by genetic factors that are linked to increased disease susceptibility in response to extrinsic triggers. Recessive mutations in TANGO2 result in episodic rhabdomyolysis, metabolic crises, encephalopathy and cardiac arrhythmia, the underlying mechanism contributing to disease onset in response to specific triggers remains unclear. To address these challenges, we created a zebrafish model of Tango2 deficiency. Here we show that loss of Tango2 in zebrafish results in growth defects, early lethality and increased susceptibility of muscle defects similar to TANGO2 patients. Detailed analyses of skeletal muscle revealed defects in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria at the onset of disease development. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) constitutes the primary lipid biosynthesis site and regulates calcium handling in skeletal muscle to control excitation-contraction coupling. Tango2 deficient SR exhibits increased sensitivity to calcium release that was partly restored by inhibition of Ryr1-mediated Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle. Using lipidomics, we identified alterations in the glycerolipid state of tango2 mutants which is critical for membrane stability and energy balance. Therefore, these studies provide insight into key disease processes in Tango2 deficiency and increased our understanding of how specific defects can predispose to environmental triggers in TANGO2-related disorders