Other organisms

Many other organisms have been monitored in the Zantiks units, including xenopus, stickleback, insects and crustacea.



These fishes are often used as a model to study evolution and ecology. Similar in size to the zebrafish, adult stickleback can be monitored in the Zantiks AD.

A stickleback exploring the Zantiks AD tank, set up with the food hopper and 5-choice inserts​.



Both the tadpole and adult Xenopus amphibian models are frequently used in biomedical research when studying vertebrate embryology and development, basic cell and molecular biology, and even to model human diseases.

An adult Xenopus exploring a tank in the AD unit

Xenopus tadpoles in a Y Maze to assess memory (Video provided by Prof Matt Guille's lab, University of Portsmouth)

Xenopus tadpoles responding to different vibration stimuli. The time at which stimuli is delivered is indicated by a red number at the top left of the video. The 60 seconds between stimuli has been sped up in this video. (Video provided by Prof Matt Guille's lab, University of Portsmouth)



Behavioural resilience in mosquitoes poses a significant challenge to malaria control. Consequently behavioural studies of adult and larval mosquitoes play an important part in understanding resistance in malaria vectors.

Tracking mosquito larvae in the Zantiks MWP unit. The vertical distribution and the distance moved was recorded simultaneously. The response to vibration stimuli was also assessed. The vibration is indicated in this video by a red square in the top left corner



Amphipods have been used for decades as an indicator species for ecosystem health and in ecotoxicology. Automation is proving useful for speeding up classic toxicology assays including the immobility test (EC50s/LC50s) and reproduction assays using the 'amplexing' or pairing behaviour.

Amphipods in 8 x 6-well plates in the Zantiks LT. In this experiment animals were constantly tracked for 4 days to assess the retention of diurnal rhythms.

Male and female amphipod pairing experiment in the Zantiks LT.