Varela, T., Varela, D., Martins, G., Conceicao, N. Cancela, M.L. (2022). Cdkl5 mutant zebrafish shows skeletal and neuronal alterations mimicking human CDKL5 deficiency disorder. Scientific Reports, 12, 9325.
CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD) is a rare neurodevelopmental condition characterized primarily by seizures and impairment of cognitive and motor skills. Additional phenotypes include microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and scoliosis. Mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene, encoding a kinase essential for normal brain development and function, are responsible for CDD. Zebrafish is an accepted biomedical model for the study of several genetic diseases and has many advantages over other models. Therefore, this work aimed to characterize the phenotypic, behavioral, and molecular consequences of the Cdkl5 protein disruption in a cdkl5 mutant zebrafish line (sa21938). cdkl5sa21938 mutants displayed a reduced head size, suggesting microcephaly, a feature frequently observed in CDD individuals. Double staining revealed shorter craniofacial cartilage structures and decrease bone mineralization in cdkl5 homozygous zebrafish indicating an abnormal craniofacial cartilage development and impaired skeletal development. Motor behavior analysis showed that cdkl5sa21938 embryos had less frequency of double coiling suggesting impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission. Locomotor behavior analysis revealed that homozygous embryos swim shorter distances, indicative of impaired motor activity which is one of the main traits of CCD. Although no apparent spontaneous seizures were observed in these models, upon treatment with pentylenetetrazole, seizure behavior and an increase in the distance travelled were observed. Quantitative PCR showed that neuronal markers, including glutamatergic genes were dysregulated in cdkl5sa21938 mutant embryos. In conclusion, homozygous cdkl5sa21938 zebrafish mimic several characteristics of CDD, thus validating them as a suitable animal model to better understand the physiopathology of this disorder.